Gene editing

Posted: 1 year ago

What is gene editing?

Genome editing, or genome engineering is a type
of 
genetic engineering in
which DNA is
inserted, deleted or replaced in the genome of
a living organism using engineered nucleases, or "molecular
scissors


There are four families of
engineered nucleases being used: meganucleases, zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription
activator-like effector-based nucleases (TALEN),
and the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats CRISPR-Cas system, and all employ
an RNA strand for homing and detecting a particular sequence and then snipping
with an endonuclease, an unnecessary segment or a gene on the genome when
editing inside the human body.  Another
insert is then ligased into the restricted DNA to enable the diff

What is gene editing?

Genome editing, or genome engineering is a type
of 
genetic engineering in
which DNA is
inserted, deleted or replaced in the genome of
a living organism using engineered nucleases, or "molecular
scissors


There are four families of
engineered nucleases being used: meganucleases, zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription
activator-like effector-based nucleases (TALEN),
and the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats CRISPR-Cas system, and all employ
an RNA strand for homing and detecting a particular sequence and then snipping
with an endonuclease, an unnecessary segment or a gene on the genome when
editing inside the human body.  Another
insert is then ligased into the restricted DNA to enable the different,
reduced, or the null function.  The CRISPR/Cas9,
Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats /Cas9 consists of a bacterial RNQA for homing for a
particular DNA sdequence and snipping with Cas9, an endonuclease. CRISPR was
found in certain bacteria for destroying and evading other incoming bacterial
DNA, plasmids and phages.  This CRISPR is
then taken and or genetically engineered and a CAs9 added to suit a particular
snipping and the insert ligased.


Scientists in California, made the first ever attempt at gene editing inside the body of a human,
to treat a metabolic disease called
Hunter
syndrome
by replacing a faulty enzyme with the correct functional enzyme in the liver of
the person, a Mr Madeux on 13th Monday of this month, November, of
this year, 2017.  Scientists at intravenously infused billions of copies of a
corrective gene and a genetic tool to cut his DNA in a precise spot.


The infusion consisted
of three parts all placed in a virus: the new gene and two zinc finger
proteins. DNA instructions for each part are placed in a virus that has been
altered to not cause infection but instead to ferry them into cells. Billions of
copies of these are given to the patient intravenously.  The design is such that they travel to the
liver. The fingers cut the DNA, allowing the new gene to slip in. The new gene
then directs the cell to make the enzyme the patient lacked.


The outcome of this
gene editing is still waiting to be published.

Ethical concerns
surrounding gene or genome editing is twofold – first about genome editing itself,
and then about germline editing.  Safety
is always a concern with genome editing, taken to consideration until the
method is perfected.  But can it be so
perfected that no cell of the millions is left without loose-ends.  Answer might lie in non-harming and
benefitting, non-homologous joining. Another of this former editing includes
justice and equity meaning can all in pain afford the method? So, it must be
affordable to everyone.  So, personally, sensible
breeding and good segregation can hold answer. 
In vitro itself is not bettered.  
When it comes to germline editing, the concern is tremendous.  Where will it stop.  We may go through Dolly the sheep.  Will ever one take chances or play?  The egg, the embryo, the pain etc, and above
all, the believe in God and how God had meant us.  Prevention is better than cure.  Good breeding or segregation is the
answer.  “Everyone is a child, and every
child is a children of God” and we all carry allele or alleles that are contributing.  And finally, support is everything to a child.
Humans.  The Septum applied but with Him
in our hearts.  Of course, when perfected,
and perhaps one hundred, the treatment can be for more to, than, for example a
micro-ailing, a pancreatic scar.


erent,
reduced, or the null function.  The CRISPR/Cas9,
Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats /Cas9 consists of a bacterial RNQA for homing for a
particular DNA sdequence and snipping with Cas9, an endonuclease. CRISPR was
found in certain bacteria for destroying and evading other incoming bacterial
DNA, plasmids and phages.  This CRISPR is
then taken and or genetically engineered and a CAs9 added to suit a particular
snipping and the insert ligased.


Scientists in California, made the first ever attempt at gene editing inside the body of a human,
to treat a metabolic disease called
Hunter
syndrome
by replacing a faulty enzyme with the correct functional enzyme in the liver of
the person, a Mr Madeux on 13th Monday of this month, November, of
this year, 2017.  Scientists at intravenously infused billions of copies of a
corrective gene and a genetic tool to cut his DNA in a precise spot.


The infusion consisted
of three parts all placed in a virus: the new gene and two zinc finger
proteins. DNA instructions for each part are placed in a virus that has been
altered to not cause infection but instead to ferry them into cells. Billions of
copies of these are given to the patient intravenously.  The design is such that they travel to the
liver. The fingers cut the DNA, allowing the new gene to slip in. The new gene
then directs the cell to make the enzyme the patient lacked.


The outcome of this
gene editing is still waiting to be published.

Ethical concerns
surrounding gene or genome editing is twofold – first about genome editing itself,
and then about germline editing.  Safety
is always a concern with genome editing, taken to consideration until the
method is perfected.  But can it be so
perfected that no cell of the millions is left without loose-ends.  Answer might lie in non-harming and
benefitting, non-homologous joining. Another of this former editing includes
justice and equity meaning can all in pain afford the method? So, it must be
affordable to everyone.  So, personally, sensible
breeding and good segregation can hold answer. 
In vitro itself is not bettered.  
When it comes to germline editing, the concern is tremendous.  Where will it stop.  We may go through Dolly the sheep.  Will ever one take chances or play?  The egg, the embryo, the pain etc, and above
all, the believe in God and how God had meant us.  Prevention is better than cure.  Good breeding or segregation is the
answer.  “Everyone is a child, and every
child is a children of God” and we all carry allele or alleles that are contributing.  And finally, support is everything to a child.
Humans.  The Septum applied but with Him
in our hearts.  Of course, when perfected,
and perhaps one hundred, the treatment can be for more to, than, for example a
micro-ailing, a pancreatic scar.